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About MCAT 2023
The Medical College Admission Test or the MCAT 2023 is an examination for medical admission accepted in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the Caribbean Islands. This MCAT exam is for prospective MD students who want to pursue medical education in the aforementioned countries and is conducted by the Association of American Medical Colleges or AAMC. The MCAT is a computer-based test that evaluates a candidate’s understanding and knowledge of various scientific concepts which are a requisite for a career in the medical and healthcare domain. The MCAT syllabus is designed to test the candidate’s knowledge of physical and biological sciences, and his/her verbal reasoning and writing skills. New sections such as psychological, social and biological foundations of behavior were added to the MCAT by the AAMC in 2015. The scores for MCAT 2023 are valid for only up to 3 years. Some colleges and universities only accept scores up to two years old.
U.S. Territories which have MCAT 2023 test centers are:
- Puerto Rico
- US Virgin Islands
International locations for MCAT 2023 are:
Australia, China: Hong Kong, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, Lebanon, Qatar, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom.
The current testing plan for 2023 includes 30 exam dates with one exam session per day beginning at 8 a.m. local time. There are a few dates toward the end of the year (August and September) where there will be two sessions per day (7:30 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. start times).
There will be two opening registration dates for 2023 testing:
Registration opens in October 2022 for those wanting to test in the first half of 2023. Registration for the Jul-Sep test dates in 2023 opens in February of that year.
MCAT 2023 Highlights
|Full Exam Name||Medical College Admission Test|
|Short Exam Name||MCAT|
|Conducting Body||Association of American Medical Colleges|
|Exam Level||National Level Exam|
|Mode of Application||Online|
|Mode of Exam||Online|
|Exam Duration||7 Hours 30 Minutes|
A candidate is eligible to give the MCAT 2023 exam if he or she is interested in pursuing an educational course in the domain of healthcare and medicine. This includes the following programs:
- Podiatric (D.P.M.)
- Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.)
- Any other healthcare or medicine related program which requires MCAT scores in order to meet admission criteria.
Upon registration for the MCAT 2023 exam, a candidate is required to submit a statement which verifies the candidate’s interest and intention toward applying to a program in a health professions school.
International students who are enrolled in an MBBS program are not required satisfy any other additional eligibility requirements.
International candidates who are pursuing a program in healthcare and medicine other than MBBS or have no immediate intention in pursuing a profession in healthcare and medicine are required to obtain special permission in order to be eligible for the MCAT 2023 exam. Details for the special permission process are given on the official MCAT web portal on the AAMC website.
Mode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Credit Card | Debit Card
In order to apply for the MCAT 2023 exam, candidates must complete the registration process online.
- Candidates must create an Association for American Medical Colleges (AAMC) account via the official registration link on the AAMC web portal.
- Candidates must fill in all the required details in the application form in order to complete the registration process. Candidates should register at least 60 days prior to the exam in order to ensure a seat in the exam.
- Candidates can then select the test date and preferred test center for the exam.
- The final step in the application/registration process is the payment of exam/registration fees which can only be done online.
- Below are the test dates for centers in USA. International centers offer MCAT 2023 on fewer dates.
|Test Date||60 Day Deadline||30 Day Deadline||10 Day Deadline||Score Release Date|
|January 13||Nov. 14, 2022||Dec. 14, 2022||Jan. 3||Feb. 14|
|January 14||Nov. 15, 2022||Dec. 15, 2022||Jan. 4||Feb. 14|
|January 19||Nov. 20, 2022||Dec 20, 2022||Jan. 9||Feb. 21|
|January 27||Nov. 28, 2022||Dec 28, 2022||Jan. 17||March 3|
|March 11||Jan. 10||Feb. 9||March 1||April 11|
|March 24||Jan. 23||Feb. 22||March 14||April 25|
|April 14||Feb. 13||March 15||April 4||May 16|
|April 15||Feb. 14||March 16||April 5||May 16|
|April 28||Feb. 27||March 29||April 18||May 31|
|April 29||Feb. 28||March 30||April 19||May 31|
|May 12||March 13||April 12||May 2||June 13|
|May 13||March 14||April 13||May 3||June 13|
|May 18||March 19||April 18||May 8||June 21|
|May 26||March 27||April 26||May 16||June 27|
|June 3||April 4||May 4||May 24||July 6|
|June 16||April 17||May 17||June 6||July 18|
|June 17||April 18||May 18||June 7||July 18|
|June 23||April 24||May 24||June 13||July 25|
|June 24||April 25||May 25||June 14||July 25|
|June 29||April 30||May 30||June 19||July 31|
|July 15||May 16||June 15||July 5||Aug. 15|
|July 28||May 29||June 28||July 18||Aug. 29|
|August 4||June 5||July 5||July 25||Sept. 6|
|August 19||June 20||July 20||Aug. 9||Sept. 19|
|August 25||June 26||July 26||Aug. 15||Sept. 26|
|August 26||June 27||July 27||Aug. 16||Sept. 26|
|August 31||July 2||Aug. 1||Aug. 21||Oct. 3|
|September 1||July 3||Aug. 2||Aug. 22||Oct. 3|
|September 8||July 10||Aug. 9||Aug. 29||Oct. 13|
|September 9||July 11||Aug. 10||Aug. 30||Oct. 13|
The standard start time is 8:00 a.m. each day unless otherwise noted below. Scores are released by 5:00 p.m. ET on the scheduled score release date.
All scheduling deadlines are at 11:59 p.m. local test center time on the day of the deadline.
The registration fee for the MCAT 2023 varies with the date of registration prior to the exam and is classified into three categories:
|Registration Fees*||In USD|
|Fee Assistance Program Registration||$135|
* Examinees testing outside the US, Canada, or US Territories will be charged a $120 International fee in addition to the initial registration fee. International fees are non-refundable upon registration cancellation.
10 days prior to exam day is the last day you can schedule an exam.
The 10 Day Deadline is also the last date to reschedule or cancel a reservation and the last date to edit registration information such as name, address, consents, etc.
Rescheduling and Cancellations (in USD)
|Standard Change Fees|
Date and/or Test Center Reschedule Fee
|60 or more days before exam||$50||$165|
|30-59 days before exam||$100||$165|
|10-29 days before exam||$200||$0|
Fee Assistance Program Change Fees
Date and/or Test Center Reschedule Fees
|60 or more days before exam||$20||$70|
|30-59 days before exam||$40||$70|
|10-29 days before exam||$80||$0|
No changes are allowed less than 10 days before the exam
Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems
Foundational concept-1-Structure and function of proteins and their constituent amino acids
|Amino acids (BC, OC): Description-absolute configuration at the α position, amino acids as dipolar ions, classifications-acidic or basic, hydrophobic or hydrophilic, reactions-sulfur linkage for cysteine and cystine|
|Amino acids (BC, OC): Reactions-peptide linkage: Polypeptides and proteins, hydrolysis|
|Protein structure (BIO, BC, OC): Structure: 1° structure of proteins, 2° structure of proteins 3° structure of proteins; role of proline, cystine,hydrophobic bonding, 4° structure of proteins (BIO, BC), conformational stability-denaturing and folding|
|Protein structure (BIO, BC, OC): Conformational stability-hydrophobic interactions, solvation layer (entropy) (BC), separation techniques: Isoelectric point, electrophoresis|
|Non-enzymatic protein function (BIO, BC): Binding (BC), immune system, motors|
|Enzyme structure and function (BIO, BC): Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions, enzyme classification by reaction type, reduction of activation energy, substrates and enzyme specificity, active site model, induced-fit model|
|Enzyme structure and function (BIO, BC): Mechanism of catalysis-cofactors, coenzymes, water-soluble vitamins, effects of local conditions on enzyme activity|
|Control of enzyme activity (BIO, BC): Kinetics-general (catalysis), Michaelis-Menten, cooperativity, feedback regulation, inhibition-types: Competitive, non-competitive, mixed (BC), uncompetitive (BC), regulatory enzymes: Allosteric enzymes|
|Control of enzyme activity (BIO, BC): Regulatory enzymes-covalently modified enzymes, Zymogen|
Foundational concept-1-Transmission of genetic information from the gene to the protein
|Nucleic acid structure and function (BIO, BC): Description, nucleotides and nucleosides: Sugar phosphate backbone, pyrimidine, purine residues, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): Double helix, Watson-Crick model of DNA structure|
|Nucleic acid structure and function (BIO, BC): Base pairing specificity-A with T, G with C, function in transmission of genetic information (BIO), DNA denaturation, reannealing, hybridization|
|DNA replication (BIO): Mechanism of replication-separation of strands, specific coupling of free nucleic acids, semiconservative nature of replication, specific enzymes involved in replication, origins of replication, multiple origins in eukaryotes|
|DNA replication (BIO): Replicating the ends of DNA molecules|
|Repair of DNA (BIO): Repair during replication, repair of mutations|
|Genetic Code (BIO): Central dogma-DNA → RNA → protein, the triplet code, codon-anticodon relationship, degenerate code, wobble pairing, missense, nonsense codons, initiation, termination codons, messenger RNA (mRNA)|
|Transcription (BIO): Transfer RNA (tRNA); ribosomal RNA (rRNA), mechanism of transcription, mRNA processing in eukaryotes, introns, exons, ribozymes, spliceosomes, small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)|
|Transcription (BIO): Functional and evolutionary importance of introns|
|Translation (BIO): Roles of mRNA, tRNA, Rrna, role and structure of ribosomes, initiation, termination co-factors, post-translational modification of proteins|
|Eukaryotic chromosome organization (BIO): Chromosomal proteins, single copy vs. repetitive DNA, supercoiling, heterochromatin vs. Euchromatin, telomeres, centromeres|
|Control of gene expression in prokaryotes (BIO): Operon concept, Jacob-Monod model, gene repression in bacteria, positive control in bacteria|
|Control of gene expression in eukaryotes (BIO): Transcriptional regulation, DNA binding proteins, transcription factors, gene amplification and duplication, post-transcriptional control, basic concept of splicing (introns, exons)|
|Control of gene expression in eukaryotes (BIO): Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, regulation of chromatin structure, DNA methylation, role of noncoding RNAs|
|Recombinant DNA and biotechnology (BIO): Gene cloning, restriction enzymes, DNA libraries, generation of cDNA, hybridization, expressing cloned genes, polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis and southern blotting, DNA sequencing|
|Recombinant DNA and biotechnology (BIO): Analyzing gene expression, determining gene function, stem cells, practical applications of DNA technology: Medical applications, human gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, forensic evidence, environmental cleanup|
|Recombinant DNA and biotechnology (BIO): Agriculture, safety and ethics of DNA technology|
Foundational concept-1-Transmission of heritable information from generation to generation and the processes that increase genetic diversity
|Evidence that DNA Is genetic material (BIO)|
|Mendelian concepts (BIO): Phenotype and genotype, gene, locus, allele: Single and multiple, homozygosity and heterozygosity, wild-type, recessiveness, complete dominance, co-dominance, incomplete dominance, leakage, penetrance, expressivity|
|Mendelian concepts (BIO): Hybridization-viability, gene pool|
|Meiosis and other factors affecting genetic variability (BIO): Significance of meiosis, important differences between meiosis and mitosis, segregation of genes: Independent assortment, linkage, recombination: Single crossovers, double crossovers|
|Meiosis and other factors affecting genetic variability (BIO): Segregation of genes-recombination: Synaptonemal complex, tetrad, sex-linked characteristics, very few genes on Y chromosome, sex determination, cytoplasmic/ extranuclear inheritance|
|Meiosis and other factors affecting genetic variability (BIO): Mutation-general concept of mutation-error in DNA sequence, types of mutations: Random, translation error, transcription error, base substitution, inversion, addition, deletion, translocation|
|Meiosis and other factors affecting genetic variability (BIO): Mutation-types of mutations: Mispairing, advantageous vs. deleterious mutation, inborn errors of metabolism, relationship of mutagens to carcinogens, genetic drift|
|Meiosis and other factors affecting genetic variability (BIO): Synapsis or crossing-over mechanism for increasing genetic diversity|
|Analytic methods (BIO): Hardy-Weinberg principle, testcross (backcross; concepts of parental, F1,and F2 generations), gene mapping: Crossover frequencies, biometry: Statistical methods|
|Evolution (BIO): Natural selection-fitness concep to selection by differential reproduction, concepts of natural and group selection, evolutionary success as increase in percentage representation in the gene pool of the next generation|
|Evolution (BIO): Speciation-polymorphism, adaptation and specialization, inbreeding, outbreeding, bottlenecks, evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome|
Foundational concept-1-Principles of bioenergetics and fuel molecule metabolism
|Principles of bioenergetics (BC, GC): Bioenergetics/ thermodynamics, free energy/ Keq, equilibrium constant, relationship of the equilibrium constant and ΔG°, Concentration: Le Châtelier’s principle, endothermicand exothermic reactions, free energy: G|
|Principles of bioenergetics (BC, GC): Spontaneous reactions and ΔG°, phosphoryl group transfers and ATP, ATP hydrolysis ΔG<< 0, ATP group transfers, Biological oxidation-reduction: Half-reactions, soluble electron carriers, flavoproteins|
|Carbohydrates (BC, OC): Description-nomenclature and classification, common names, absolute configuration, cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses, epimers and anomers, hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage, monosaccharides, disaccharides|
|Carbohydrates (BC, OC): Polysaccharides|
|Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway (BIO, BC): Glycolysis (aerobic), substrates and products-feeder pathways: Glycogen, starch metabolism, fermentation (anaerobic glycolysis), gluconeogenesis (BC), pentose phosphate pathway (BC)|
|Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway (BIO, BC): Net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes|
|Principles of metabolic regulation (BC): Regulation of metabolic pathways (BIO, BC), maintenance of a dynamic steady state, regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, metabolism of glycogen|
|Principles of metabolic regulation (BC): Regulation of glycogen synthesis and breakdown: Allosteric and hormonal control, analysis of metabolic control|
|Citric acid cycle (BIO, BC): Acetyl-CoA production (BC), reactions of the cycle, substrates and products, regulation of the cycle, net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes|
|Metabolism of fatty acids and proteins (BIO, BC): Description of fatty acids (BC), digestion, mobilization, and transport of fats, oxidation of fatty acids, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, ketone bodies (BC), anabolism of fats (BIO)|
|Metabolism of fatty acids and proteins (BIO, BC): Nontemplate synthesis-biosynthesis of lipids and polysaccharides (BIO), metabolism of proteins (BIO)|
|Oxidative phosphorylation (BIO, BC): Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, substrates and products, general features of the pathway, electron transfer in mitochondria: NADH, NADPH, flavoproteins, cytochromes|
|Oxidative phosphorylation (BIO, BC): ATP synthase, chemiosmotic coupling-proton motive force, net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes, regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria, apoptosis, oxidative stress (BC)|
|Hormonal regulation and integration of metabolism (BC): Higher-level integration of hormone structureand function, tissue-specific metabolism, hormonal regulation of fuel metabolism, obesity and regulation of body mass|
Foundational concept-2-Assemblies of molecules, cells, and groups of cells within single cellular and multicellular organisms
|Plasma membrane (BIO, BC): General function in cell containment, composition of membranes: Lipid components (BIO, BC, OC)-phospholipids (and phosphatids), steroids, waxes, protein components, fluid mosaic model, membrane dynamics|
|Plasma membrane (BIO, BC): Solute transport across membranes-thermodynamic considerations, osmosis; Colligative properties; osmotic pressure (GC), passive transport, active transport: Sodium/ potassium pump, membrane channels, membrane potential|
|Plasma membrane (BIO, BC): Membrane receptors, exocytosis and endocytosis, intercellular junctions (BIO): Gap junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes|
|Membrane-bound organelles and defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells (BIO): Defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells-membrane-bound nucleus, presence of organelles, mitotic division, nucleus: Compartmentalization, storage of genetic information|
|Membrane-bound organelles and defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells (BIO): Nucleus-nucleolus: Location and function, nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, mitochondria: Site of ATP production, inner and outer membrane structure (BIO, BC)|
|Membrane-bound organelles and defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells (BIO): Mitochondria-self-replication, lysosomes: Membrane-bound vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes, endoplasmic reticulum: Rough and smooth components|
|Membrane-bound organelles and defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells (BIO): Endoplasmic reticulum-rough endoplasmic reticulum site of ribosomes, double-membrane structure, role in membrane biosynthesis, role in biosynthesis of secreted proteins|
|Membrane-bound organelles and defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells (BIO): Golgi apparatus-general structure and role inpackaging and secretion, peroxisomes: Organelles that collect peroxides|
|Cytoskeleton (BIO): General function in cell support and movement, microfilaments: Composition and role in cleavageand contractility, microtubules: Composition and role in support and transport, intermediate filaments, role in support|
|Cytoskeleton (BIO): Composition and function of cilia and flagella, centrioles, microtubule-organizing centers|
|Tissues formed from eukaryotic cells (BIO): Epithelial cells, connective tissue cells|
Foundational concept-2-The structure, growth, physiology, and genetics of prokaryotes and viruses
|Cell theory (BIO): History and development, impact on biology|
|Classification and structure of prokaryotic cells (BIO): Prokaryotic domains-archaea, bacteria, major classifications of bacteria by shape: Bacilli (rod-shaped), spirilli (spiral-shaped), cocci (spherical), lack of nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus|
|Classification and structure of prokaryotic cells (BIO): Lack of typical eukaryotic organelles, presence of cell wall in bacteria, flagellar propulsion, mechanism|
|Growth and physiology of prokaryotic cells (BIO): Reproduction by fission, high degree of genetic adaptability, acquisition of antibiotic resistance, exponential growth, existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants, parasitic and symbiotic, chemotaxis|
|Genetics of prokaryotic cells (BIO): Existence of plasmids, extragenomic DNA, transformation: Incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium, conjugation, transposons (also present in eukaryotic cells)|
|Virus structure (BIO): General structural characteristics (nucleic acid and protein, enveloped and nonenveloped), lack organelles and nucleus, structural aspects of typical bacteriophage, genomic content-RNA or DNA|
|Virus structure (BIO): Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells|
|Viral life cycle (BIO): Self-replicating biological units that must reproduce within specific host cell, generalized phage and animal virus life cycles: Attachment to host, penetration of cell membrane or cell wall, and entry of viral genetic material|
|Viral life cycle (BIO): Generalized phage and animal virus life cycles-use of host synthetic mechanism to replicate viral components, self-assembly and release of new viral particles, transduction: Transfer of genetic material by viruses|
|Viral life cycle (BIO): Retrovirus life cycle-integration into host DNA, reverse transcriptase, HIV, prions and viroids: Subviral particles|
Foundational concept-2-Processes of cell division, differentiation, and specialization
|Mitosis (BIO): Mitotic process-prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, interphase, mitotic structures: Centrioles, asters, spindles, chromatids, centromeres, kinetochores, nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization, mechanisms of chromosome movement|
|Mitosis (BIO): Phases of cell cycle-G0, G1, S, G2, M, growth arrest, control of cell cycle, loss of cell cycle controls in cancer cells|
|Biosignaling (BC): Oncogenes, apoptosis|
|Reproductive system (BIO): Gametogenesis by meiosis, ovum and sperm: Differences in formation, differences in morphology, relative contribution to next generation, reproductive sequence: Fertilization, implantation, development, birth|
|Embryogenesis (BIO): Stages of early development (order and general features of each): Fertilization, cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation: First cell movements, formation of primary germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm), neurulation|
|Embryogenesis (BIO): Major structures arising out of primary germ layers, neural crest, environment-gene interaction in development|
|Mechanisms of development (BIO): Cell specialization-determination, differentiation, tissue types, cell-cell communication in development, cell migration, pluripotency: Stem cells, gene regulation in development, programmed cell death|
|Mechanisms of development (BIO): Existence of regenerative capacity in various species, senescence and aging|
Foundational concept-3-Structure and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and ways these systems coordinate the organ systems
|Nervous system-structure and function (BIO): Major functions-high-level control and integration of body systems, adaptive capability to external influences, organization of vertebrate nervous system, sensor and effector neurons|
|Nervous system-structure and function (BIO): Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems-antagonistic control, reflexes: Feedback loop, reflex arc, role of spinal cord and supraspinal circuits, integration with endocrine system: Feedback control|
|Nerve cell (BIO): Cell body-site of nucleus, organelles, dendrites: Branched extensions of cell body, axon: Structure and function, Myelin sheath, Schwann cells, insulation of axon, nodes of Ranvier: Propagation of nerve impulse along axon|
|Nerve cell (BIO): Synapse-site of impulse propagation between cells, synaptic activity: Transmitter molecules, resting potential: Electrochemical gradient, action potential: Threshold, all-or-none, sodium-potassium pump|
|Nerve cell (BIO): Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers-summation,frequency of firing, Glial cells, neuroglia|
|Electrochemistry (GC): Concentration cell-direction of electron flow, Nernst equation|
|Biosignaling (BC): Gated ion channels-voltage gated, ligand gated, receptor enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors|
|Lipids (BC, OC): Description; structure: Steroids, terpenes and terpenoids|
|Endocrine system-hormones and their sources (BIO): Function of endocrine system-specific chemical control at cell, tissue, and organ level, definitions of endocrine gland, hormone, major endocrine glands: Names, locations, products|
|Endocrine system-hormones and their sources (BIO): Major types of hormones, neuroendocrinology-relation between neurons and hormonal systems|
|Endocrine system-mechanisms of hormone action (BIO): Cellular mechanisms of hormone action, transport of hormones: Blood supply, specificity of hormones: Target tissue, integration with nervous system: Feedback control, regulation by second messengers|
Foundational concept-3-Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems
|Respiratory system (BIO): General function-gas exchange, thermoregulation, protection against disease: Particulate matter, structure of lungs and alveoli, breathing mechanisms: Diaphragm, rib cage, differential pressure|
|Respiratory system (BIO): Breathing mechanisms-resiliency and surface tension effects, thermoregulation: Nasal and tracheal capillary beds; evaporation, panting, particulate filtration: Nasal hairs, mucus-ciliasystem in lungs|
|Respiratory system (BIO): Alveolar gas exchange-diffusion, differential partial pressure, Henry’s law (GC), pH control, regulation by nervous control: CO sensitivity|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Functions-circulation of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, ions and fluids, removal of metabolic waste, role in thermoregulation, four-chambered heart: Structure and function, endothelial cells, systolic and diastolic pressure|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Pulmonary and systemic circulation, arterial and venous systems (arteries, arterioles,venules, veins): Structural and functional differences, pressure and flow characteristics|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Capillary beds-mechanisms of gas and solute exchange, mechanism of heat exchange, source of peripheral resistance, composition of blood: Plasma, chemicals, blood cellso, erythrocyte production and destruction; spleen, bone marrow|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Composition of blood-regulation of plasma volume, coagulation, clotting mechanisms, oxygen transport by blood: Hemoglobin, hematocrit, oxygen content, oxygen affinity, carbon dioxide transport and level in blood|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Nervous and endocrine control|
|Lymphatic system (BIO): Structure of lymphatic system, major functions: Equalization of fluid distribution, transport of proteins and large glycerides, production of lymphocytes involved in immune reactionso, return of materials to the blood|
|Immune system (BIO): Innate (nonspecific) vs. adaptive (specific) immunity, adaptive immune system cells: T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, innate immune system cells: Macrophages, phagocytes, tissues: Bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes|
|Immune system (BIO): Concept of antigen and antibody, antigen presentation, clonal selection, antigen-antibody recognition, structure of antibody molecule, recognition of self vs. nonself, auto immune diseases, major histocompatibility complex|
|Digestive system (BIO): Ingestion-saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes, ingestion; esophagus, transport function, stomach: Storage and churning of food, low pH, gastric juice, mucal protection against self-destruction|
|Digestive system (BIO): Stomach-production of digestive enzymes, site of digestion, structure (gross), liver: Structural relationship of liver within gastrointestinal system, production of bile, role in blood glucose regulation, detoxification|
|Digestive system (BIO): Bile-storage in gall bladder, function, pancreas: Production of enzymes, transport of enzymes to small intestine, small intestine: Absorption of food molecules and water, function and structure of villi, production of enzymes|
|Digestive system (BIO): Small intestine-site of digestion, neutralization of stomach acid, structure (anatomic subdivisions), large intestine: Absorption of water, bacterial flora, structure (gross), rectum: Storage and elimination of waste, feces|
|Digestive system (BIO): Muscular control-peristalsis, endocrine control: Hormones, target tissues, nervous control: The enteric nervous system|
|Excretory system (BIO): Roles in homeostasis-blood pressure, osmoregulation, acid-base balance, removal of soluble nitrogenous waste, kidney structure: Cortex, medulla, Nephron: Structure, glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle|
|Excretory system (BIO): Nephron-distal tubule, collecting duct, formation of urine: Glomerular filtration, secretion and reabsorption of solutes, concentration of urine, counter-current multiplier mechanism|
|Excretory system (BIO): Storage and elimination-ureter, bladder, urethra, osmoregulation: Capillary reabsorption of HO, amino acids, glucose, ions, muscular control: Sphincter muscle|
|Reproductive system (BIO): Male and female reproductive structures and their function-gonads, genitalia, differences between male and female structures, hormonal control of reproduction: Male and female sexual development, female reproductive cycle|
|Reproductive system (BIO): Hormonal control of reproduction-parturition, lactation, integration with nervous control|
|Muscle system (BIO): Important functions-support: Mobility, peripheral circulatory assistance, thermoregulation (shivering reflex), structure of three basic muscle types: Striated, smooth, cardiac|
|Muscle system (BIO): Muscle structure and control of contraction-T-tubule system, contractile apparatus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, fiber type, contractile velocity of different muscle types, regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, oxygen debt: Fatigue|
|Muscle system (BIO): Nervous control-motor neurons, neuromuscular junction, motor end plates, sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation, voluntary and involuntary muscles|
|Specialized cell-muscle cell (BIO): Structural characteristics of striated, smooth, and cardiac muscle, abundant mitochondria in red muscle cells: ATP source, organization of contractile elements: Actin and myosin filaments, crossbridges|
|Specialized cell-muscle cell (BIO): Organization of contractile elements-sliding filament model, sarcomeres: “I” and “A” bands, “M” and “Z” lines,“H” zone, presence of troponin and tropomyosin, calcium regulation of contraction|
|Skeletal system (BIO): Functions-structural rigidity and support, calcium storage, physical protection, skeletal structure: Specialization of bone types, structures, joint structures, endoskeleton vs. Exoskeleton|
|Skeletal system (BIO): Bone structure-calcium-protein matrix, cellular composition of bone, cartilage: Structure and function, ligaments, tendons, endocrine control|
|Skin system (BIO): Structure-layer differentiation, cell types, relative impermeability to water, functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation, functions in thermoregulation: Hair, erectile musculature, fat layer for insulation|
|Skin system (BIO): Functions in thermoregulation-sweat glands, location in dermis, vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries, physical protection: Nails, calluses, hair, protection against abrasion, disease organisms|
|Skin system (BIO): Hormonal control-sweating, vasodilation, and vasoconstriction|
Chemical and physical foundations of biological systems
Foundational concept-4-Translational motion, forces, work, energy, and equilibrium in living systems
|Translational motion (PHY): Units and dimensions, vectors, components, vector addition, speed, velocity (average and instantaneous), acceleration|
|Force (PHY): Newton’s first law, inertia, Newton’s second law (F= ma), Newton’s third law, forces equal and opposite, friction, static and kinetic, center of mass|
|Equilibrium (PHY): Vector analysis of forces acting on a point object, torques, lever arms|
|Work (PHY): Work done by a constant force: W= Fdcosθ, mechanical advantage, work kinetic energy theorem, conservative forces|
|Energy of point object systems (PHY): Kinetic energy: KE= ½mv; units, potential energy, PE =mgh (gravitational, local), PE= ½kx (spring), conservation of energy, power, units|
|Periodic motion (PHY): Amplitude, frequency, phase, transverse and longitudinal waves: Wave length and propagation speed|
Foundational concept-4-Importance of fluids for the circulation of blood, gas movement, and gas exchange
|Fluids (PHY): Density, specific gravity, buoyancy, Archimedes’ principle, hydrostatic pressure: Pascal’s law, hydrostatic pressure; P= ρgh (pressure vs. depth), viscosity: Poiseuille flow, continuity equation (A∙v= constant)|
|Fluids (PHY): Concept of turbulence at high velocities, surface tension, Bernoulli’s equation, Venturi effect, pitot tube|
|Circulatory system (BIO): Arterial and venous systems; pressure and flow characteristics|
|Gas phase (GC, PHY): Absolute temperature, K, Kelvin scale, pressure, simple mercury barometer, molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol, ideal gas: Definition, ideal gas law: PV= nRT, Boyle’s law: PV= constant, Charles’ law: V/T= constant|
|Gas phase (GC, PHY): Ideal gas-Avogadro’s law: V/n= constant, kinetic molecular theory of gases: Heat capacity at constant volume and at constant pressure (PHY), Boltzmann’s constant (PHY), deviation of real gas behaviour from ideal gas law: Qualitative|
|Gas phase (GC, PHY): Deviation of real gas behaviour from ideal gas law-quantitative (Van der Waals’ equation), partial pressure, mole fraction, Dalton’s law relating partial pressure to composition|
Foundational concept-4-Electrochemistry and electrical circuits and their elements
|Electrostatics (PHY): Charge, conductors, charge conservation, insulators, Coulomb’s law, electric field E: Field lines, field due to charge distribution, electrostatic energy, electric potential at a point in space|
|Circuit elements (PHY): Current I= ΔQ/Δt, sign conventions, units, electromotive force, voltage, resistance: Ohm’s law-I= V/R, resistors in series, resistors in parallel, resistivity: ρ= R•A/L, Capacitance: Parallel plate capacitor|
|Circuit elements (PHY): Capacitance-energy of charged capacitor, capacitors in series, capacitors in parallel, dielectrics, conductivity: Metallic, electrolytic, meters|
|Magnetism (PHY): Definition of magnetic field B, motion of charged particles in magnetic fields; Lorentz force|
|Electrochemistry (GC): Electrolytic cell-electrolysis: Anode, cathode, electrolyte, Faraday’s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current, electron flow; oxidation and reduction at the electrodes|
|Electrochemistry (GC): Galvanic or voltaic cells-half-reactions, reduction potentials; cell potential, direction of electron flow, concentration cell, batteries: Electromotive force, voltage, lead-storage batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries|
|Specialized cell-nerve cell (BIO): Myelin sheath, Schwann cells, insulation of axon, nodes of Ranvier: Propagation of nerve impulse along axon|
Foundational concept-4-How light and sound interact with matter
|Sound (PHY): Production of sound, relative speed of sound in solids, liquids, and gases, Intensity of sound, decibel units, log scale, attenuation (damping), Doppler effect: Moving sound source or observer,reflection of sound from a moving object, pitch|
|Sound (PHY): Doppler effect-resonance in pipes and strings, ultrasound, shock waves|
|Light, electromagnetic radiation (PHY): Concept of Interference; Young’s double-slit experiment, thin films, diffraction grating, single-slit diffraction, other diffraction phenomena, X-ray diffraction, polarization of light: Linear and circular|
|Light, electromagnetic radiation (PHY): Properties of electromagnetic radiation-velocity equals constant c, in vacuo, electromagnetic radiation consists of perpendicularly oscillating electric and magnetic fields|
|Light, electromagnetic radiation (PHY): Properties of electromagnetic radiation-direction of propagation is perpendicular to boths, classification of electromagnetic spectrum, photonenergy E = hf, visual spectrum, colour|
|Molecular structure and absorption spectra (OC): Infrared region-intramolecular vibrations and rotations, recognizing common characteristic group absorptions, fingerprint region|
|Molecular structure and absorption spectra (OC): Visible region (GC)-absorption in visible region gives complementary colour (e.g. carotene), effect of structural changes on absorption (e.g. indicators)|
|Molecular structure and absorption spectra (OC): Ultraviolet region-π-Electron and nonbonding electron transitions, conjugated systems, NMR spectroscopy: Protons in a magnetic field; equivalent protons, spin-spin splitting|
|Geometrical optics (PHY): Reflection from plane surface-angle of incidence equals angle of reflection, refraction, refractive index n; Snell’s law: nsin θ= nsin θ, dispersion, change of index of refraction with wavelength|
|Geometrical optics (PHY): Conditions for total internal reflection, spherical mirrors: Center of curvature, focal length, real and virtual images, thin lenses: Converging and diverging lenses, use of formula 1/p+ 1/q= 1/f, with sign conventions|
|Geometrical optics (PHY): Thin lenses-lens strength, diopters, combination of lenses, lens aberration, optical instruments, including the human eye|
Foundational concept-4-Atoms, nuclear decay, electronic structure, and atomic chemical behaviour
|Atomic nucleus (PHY, GC): Atomic number, atomic weight, neutrons, protons, isotopes, nuclear forces, binding energy, radioactive decay: α, β, γ decay, half-life, exponential decay, semi-log plots, mass spectrometer, mass spectroscopy|
|Electronic structure (PHY, GC): Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons perorbital (GC), ground state, excited states, absorption and emission line spectra, use of Pauli exclusion principle|
|Electronic structure (PHY, GC): Paramagnetism and diamagnetism, conventional notation for electronic structure (GC), Bohr atom, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, effective nuclear charge (GC), photoelectric effect|
|The periodic table-classification of elements into groups by electronic structure (GC): Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals: Their chemical characteristics, halogens: Their chemical characteristics|
|The periodic table-classification of elements into groups by electronic structure (GC): Noble gases-their physical and chemical characteristics, transition metals, representative elements, metals and nonmetals, oxygen group|
|The periodic table-variations of chemical properties with group and row (GC): Valence electrons, first and second ionization energy: Definition, prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows|
|The periodic table-variations of chemical properties with group and row (GC): Electron affinity-definition, variation with group and row, electronegativity: Definition, comparative values for some representative elements and important groups|
|The periodic table-variations of chemical properties with group and row (GC): Electron shells and the sizes of atoms, electron shells and the sizes ofions|
|Stoichiometry (GC): Molecular weight, empirical vs.molecular formula, metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry, description of composition by percent mass, mole concept, Avogadro’s number NA, definition of density|
|Stoichiometry (GC): Oxidation number-common oxidizing and reducing agents, disproportionation reactions, description of reactions by chemical equations: Conventions for writing chemical equations, balancing equations, including redox equations|
|Stoichiometry (GC): Description of reactions by chemical equations-limiting reactants, theoretical yields|
Foundational concept-5-Unique nature of water and its solutions
|Acid-base equilibria (GC, BC): Brønsted-Lowry definition of acid, base, ionization of water: Kw, its approximate value (Kw= [H+][OH–] = 10–14 at 25°C, 1 atm), definition of pH: pH of pure water, conjugate acids and bases (e.g., NH+and NH)|
|Acid-base equilibria (GC, BC): Strong acids and bases (e.g.,nitric, sulfuric), weak acids and bases (e.g., acetic, benzoic): Dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt, hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases|
|Acid-base equilibria (GC, BC): Weak acids and bases (e.g., acetic, benzoic)-calculation of pH of solutions of salts of weak acids or bases, equilibrium constants Ka and Kb: pKa, pKb, buffers: Definition and concepts (common buffer systems)|
|Acid-base equilibria (GC, BC): Buffers-influence on titration curves|
|Ions in solutions (GC, BC): Anion, cation-common names, formulas, and charges for familiar ions (e.g., NH+ ammonium, PO- phosphate, SO2–sulfate), hydration, the hydronium ion|
|Solubility (GC): Units of concentration (e.g. molarity), solubility product constant; the equilibrium expression Ksp, common-ion effect: its use in laboratory separations, complex ion formation, complex ions and solubility, solubility and pH|
|Titration (GC): Indicators, neutralization, interpretation of the titration curves, redox titration|
Foundational concept-5-Nature of molecules and intermolecular interactions
|Covalent bond (GC): Lewis electron dot formulas, resonance structures, formal charge, Lewis acids and bases, partial ionic character: Role of electro negativity in determining charge distribution, dipole moment|
|Covalent bond (GC): σ and π bond-hybrid orbitals: sp, sp, sp,and respective geometries, valence shell electron pair repulsion and the prediction of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH, HO, CO)|
|Covalent bond (GC): σ and π bond-structural formulas for molecules involving H, C, N, O, F, S, P, Si, Cl, delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules, multiple bondin: Effect on bond length and bond energies, rigidity in molecular structure|
|Covalent bond (GC): Stereochemistry of covalently bonded molecules(OC)-isomers: Structural isomers, stereoisomers (e.g. diastereomers, enantiomers, cis-transisomers), conformational isomers, polarization of light, specific rotation|
|Covalent bond (GC): Absolute and relative configuration, conventions for writing R and S forms, conventions for writing E and Z forms|
|Liquid phase-intermolecular forces (GC): Hydrogen bonding, dipole interactions, Van der Waals’ forces (London dispersion forces)|
Foundational concept-5-Separation and purification methods
|Separations and purifications (OC, BC): Extraction-distribution of solute between two immiscible solvents, distillation, chromatography: Basic principles involved inseparation process, column chromatography: Gas-liquid chromatography|
|Separations and purifications (OC, BC): Column chromatography-high-pressure liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography: Separation and purification of peptides and proteins (BC)|
|Separations and purifications (OC, BC): Electrophoresis, quantitative analysis, chromatography: Size-exclusion, ion-exchange, affinity, racemic mixtures, separation of enantiomers (OC)|
Foundational concept-5-Structure, function, and reactivity of biologically relevant molecules
|Nucleotides and nucleic acids (BC, BIO): Nucleotides and nucleosides-composition, sugar phosphate backbone, pyrimidine, purine residues, deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA; ribonucleic acid: RNA; double helix; RNA structures, chemistry (BC), other functions (BC)|
|Amino acids, peptides, proteins (OC, BC): Amino acids-description: Absolute configuration at the α position, dipolar ions, classification: Acidic or basic, hydrophilic or hydrophobic, synthesis of α-amino acids (OC): Strecker synthesis, Gabriel synthesis|
|Amino acids, peptides, proteins (OC, BC): Peptides and proteins-reactions, sulfur linkage for cysteine and cystine. peptide linkage: Polypeptides and proteins, hydrolysis (BC), general principles: Primary structure of proteins|
|Amino acids, peptides, proteins (OC, BC): General principles-secondary structure of proteins, tertiary structure of proteins, isoelectric point|
|The three-dimensional protein structure (BC): Conformational stability-hydrophobic interactions, solvation layer (entropy), quaternary structure, denaturing and folding|
|Nonenzymatic protein function (BC): Binding, immune system, motor|
|Lipids (BC, OC): Description, types, storage: Triacyl glycerols, free fatty acids: Saponification, structural: Phospholipids and phosphatids, sphingolipids (BC), waxes, signals, cofactors: Fat-soluble vitamins, steroids, prostaglandins (BC)|
|Carbohydrates (OC): Description-nomenclature and classification, common names, absolute configuration, cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses, epimers and anomers, hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage, keto-enol tautomerism of monosaccharides|
|Carbohydrates (OC): Disaccharides (BC), polysaccharides (BC)|
|Aldehydes and ketones (OC): Description-nomenclature, physical properties, important reactions: Nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond-acetal, hemiacetal, imine, enamine, hydride reagents, cyanohydrin|
|Aldehydes and ketones (OC): Important reactions-oxidation of aldehydes, reactions at adjacent positions: Enolatechemistry, Keto-enol tautomerism (α-racemization), Aldol condensation, retro-aldol, kinetic vs.thermodynamic enolate|
|Aldehydes and ketones (OC): General principles, effect of substituents on reactivity of C=O; sterichindrance, acidity of α-H; carbanions|
|Alcohols (OC): Description-nomenclature, physical properties (acidity, hydrogen bonding), important reactions: Oxidation, substitution reactions: SN1 or SN2, protection of alcohols, preparation of mesylates and tosylates|
|Carboxylic acids (OC): Description-nomenclature, physical properties, important reactions: Carboxyl group reactions-amides (and lactam), esters (and lactone), anhydride formation, reduction, decarboxylation|
|Carboxylic acids (OC): Important reactions-reactions at 2-position, substitution|
|Acid derivatives (anhydrides, amides, esters) (OC): Description-nomenclature, physical properties, important reactions: Nucleophilic substitution, transesterification, hydrolysis of amides, general principles: Relative reactivity of acid derivatives|
|Acid derivatives (anhydrides, amides, esters) (OC): General principles-steric effects, electronic effects, strain (e.g. β-lactams)|
|Phenols (OC, BC): Oxidation and reduction (e.g. hydroquinones,ubiquinones): Biological 2e–redox centers|
|Polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (OC, BC): Biological aromatic heterocycles|
Foundational concept-5-Principles of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics
|Enzymes (BC, BIO): Classification by reaction type, mechanism: Substrates and enzyme specificity, active-site model, induced-fit model, cofactors, coenzymes, and vitamins, kinetics: General (catalysis), Michaelis-Menten, cooperativity|
|Enzymes (BC, BIO): Kinetics-effects of local conditions on enzyme activity, inhibition, regulatory enzymes: Allosteric, covalently modified|
|Principles of bioenergetics (BC): Bioenergetics/ thermodynamics-free energy, Keq, concentration, phosphorylation/ ATP: ATP hydrolysis ΔG<< 0, ATP group transfers, biological oxidation-reduction: Half-reactions, soluble electron carriers, flavoproteins|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): Thermodynamic system-state function, zeroth law-concept of temperature, first law-conservation of energy in thermodynamic processes|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): PV diagram- work done = area under or enclosed by curve (PHY), second law-concept of entropy: Entropy as a measure of “disorder”|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): Second law-concept of entropy: Relative entropy for gas, liquid, and crystal states, measurement of heat changes (calorimetry), heatcapacity, specific heat|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): Heat transfer-conduction, convection, radiation (PHY), endothermic, exothermic reactions (GC): Enthalpy, H, and standard heats of reaction and formation|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): Exothermic reactions (GC)-Hess’ law of heat summation, bond dissociation energy as related to heats offormation (GC), free energy: G (GC)|
|Energy changes in chemical reactions-thermochemistry, thermodynamics (GC, PHY): Spontaneous reactions and ΔG° (GC), coefficient of expansion (PHY), heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, phase diagram: Pressure and temperature|
|Rate processes in chemical reactions-kinetics and equilibrium (GC): Reaction rate, dependence of reaction rate on concentration of reactants, rate law, rate constant, reaction order|
Psychological, social, and biological foundations of behaviour
Foundational concept-6-Sensing the environment
|Sensory processing (PSY, BIO): Sensation-threshold, Weber’s law (PSY), signal detection theory (PSY), sensory adaptation, psychophysics, sensory receptors: Sensory pathways, types of sensory receptors|
|Vision (PSY, BIO): Structure and function of the eye, visual processing: Visual pathways in the brain, parallel processing (PSY), feature detection (PSY)|
|Hearing (PSY, BIO): Structure and function of the ear, auditory processing (e.g. auditory pathways in the brain), sensory reception by hair cells|
|Other Senses (PSY, BIO): Somatosensation (e.g. pain perception), taste (e.g. taste buds (chemoreceptors) that detect specific chemicals), smell: Olfactory cells (chemoreceptors) that detect specific chemicals, pheromones (BIO)|
|Other Senses (PSY, BIO): Smell-olfactory pathways in the brain (BIO), kinesthetic sense (PSY), vestibular sense|
|Perception (PSY): Bottom-up/ top-down processing, perceptual organization (e.g. depth, form, motion, constancy), Gestalt principles|
Foundational concept-6-Making sense of the environment
|Attention (PSY): Selective attention, divided attention|
|Cognition (PSY): Information-processing model, cognitive development: Piaget’s stages of, cognitive development, cognitive changes in late adulthood, role of culture in cognitive development, influence of heredity and environment on cognitive development|
|Cognition (PSY): Biological factors that affect cognition (PSY, BIO), problem-solving and decision-making: Types of problem-solving, barriers to effective problem-solving, approaches to problem-solving|
|Cognition (PSY): Problem-solving and decision-making-heuristics and biases (e.g. overconfidence, belief perseverance), intellectual functioning: Theories of intelligence, influence of heredity and environment on intelligence|
|Cognition (PSY): Intellectual functioning-variations in intellectual ability|
|Consciousness (PSY): States of consciousness-alertness (PSY, BIO), sleep: Stages of sleep, sleep cycles and changes to sleep cycles, sleep and circadian rhythms (PSY, BIO), dreaming, sleep-wake disorders, hypnosis and meditation|
|Consciousness (PSY): Consciousness-altering drugs-types of consciousness-altering drugs and their effects on the nervous system and behaviour, drug addiction and the reward pathway in the brain|
|Memory (PSY): Encoding-process of encoding information, processes that aid in encoding memories, storage: Types of memory storage (e.g. sensory, working, long-term), semantic networks and spreading activation|
|Memory (PSY): Retrieval-recall, recognition, and relearning, retrieval cues, the role of emotion in retrieving memories (PSY,BIO), processes that aid retrieval, forgetting: Aging and memory|
|Memory (PSY): Forgetting-memory dysfunctions (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Korsakoff’s syndrome), decay, interference, memory construction and source monitoring, changes in synaptic connections underlie memoryand learning (PSY, BIO): Neural plasticity|
|Memory (PSY): Changes in synaptic connections underlie memoryand learning (PSY)-memory and learning, long-term potentiation|
|Language (PSY): Theories of language development (e.g. learning, nativist, interactionist), influence of language on cognition, brain areas that control language and speech (PSY, BIO)|
Foundational concept-6-Responding to the world
|Emotion (PSY): Three components of emotion (i.e. cognitive, physiological, behavioral), universal emotions (i.e. fear, anger, happiness,surprise, joy, disgust, sadness), adaptive role of emotion, theories of emotion: James-Lange theory|
|Emotion (PSY): Theories of emotion-Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory, the role of biological processes in perceiving emotion (PSY, BIO): Brain regions involved in the generation andexperience of emotions|
|Emotion (PSY): The role of biological processes in perceiving emotion (PSY, BIO)-the role of the limbic system in emotion, emotion and the autonomic nervous system, physiological markers of emotion (signatures of emotion)|
|Stress (PSY): The nature of stress, appraisal, different types of stressors (e.g. cataclysmic events, personal), effects of stress on psychological functions, stress outcomes, response to stressors: Physiological (PSY, BIO), emotional, behavioural|
|Stress (PSY): Managing stress (e.g. exercise, relaxation, spirituality)|
Foundational concept-7-Individual influences on behaviour
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): The nervous system-neurons (e.g., the reflex arc), neurotransmitters, structure and function of the peripheral nervous system, structure and function of the central nervous system|
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): The brain-forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, lateralization of cortical functions, methods used in studying the brain, the spinal cord, neuronal communication and its influence on behaviour (PSY)|
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): Influence of neurotransmitters on behaviour (PSY), the endocrine system: Components of the endocrine system, effects of the endocrine system on behaviour, Behavioral genetics: Genes, temperament, and heredity|
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): Behavioral genetics-adaptive value of traits and behaviors, interaction between heredity and environmental influences|
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): Influence of genetic and environmental factors on the development of behaviour-experience and behaviour (PSY), regulatory genes and behaviour (BIO), genetically based behavioural variation in natural populations|
|Biological bases of behaviour (PSY, BIO): Human physiological development (PSY)-prenatal development, motor development, developmental changes in adolescence|
|Personality (PSY): Theories of personality-psychoanalytic perspective, humanistic perspective, trait perspective, social cognitive perspective, biological perspective, behaviorist perspective, situational approach to explaining behaviour|
|Psychological disorders (PSY): Understanding psychological disorders-biomedical vs. biopsychosocial approaches, classifying psychological disorders, rates of psychological disorders|
|Psychological disorders (PSY): Types of psychological disorders-anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trauma-and stressor-related disorders, somatic symptom and related disorders, bipolar and related disorders, depressive disorders|
|Psychological disorders (PSY): Types of psychological disorders-Schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, personality disorders|
|Psychological disorders (PSY): Biological bases of nervous system disorders (PSY,BIO)-Schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stem cell-based therapy to regenerate neurons inthe central nervous system (BIO)|
|Motivation (PSY): Factors that influence motivation, instinct, arousal, drives (e.g. negative-feedback systems) (PSY, BIO), needs, theories that explain how motivation affects human behaviour: Drive reduction theory, incentive theory|
|Motivation (PSY): Theories that explain how motivation affects human behaviour-other theories (e.g. cognitive, need-based), biological and sociocultural motivators that regulate behaviour (e.g. hunger, sex drive, substance addiction)|
|Attitudes (PSY): Components of attitudes (i.e. cognitive, affective, behavioral), the link between attitudes and behaviour: Processes by which behaviour influences attitudes (e.g. foot-in-the door phenomenon, role-playing effects)|
|Attitudes (PSY): The link between attitudes and behaviour-processes by which attitudes influence behaviour, cognitive dissonance theory|
Foundational concept-7-Social processes that influence human behaviour
|How the presence of others affects individual behaviour (PSY): Social facilitation, deindividuation, Bystander effect, social loafing, social control (SOC), peer pressure (PSY, SOC), conformity (PSY, SOC), obedience (PSY, SOC)|
|Group decision-making processes (PSY, SOC): Group polarization (PSY), group think|
|Normative and nonnormative behaviour (SOC): Social norms (PSY, SOC), sanctions (SOC), folkways, mores, and taboos (SOC), anomie (SOC), deviance: Perspectives on deviance (e.g. differential association, labeling theory, strain theory)|
|Normative and nonnormative behaviour (SOC): Aspects of collective behaviour (e.g. fads, masshysteria, riots)|
|Socialization (PSY, SOC): Agents of socialization (e.g. the family, mass media, peers, workplace)|
Foundational concept-7-Attitude and behaviour change
|Habituation and dishabituation (PSY): Associative learning (PSY)-classical conditioning (PSY, BIO): Neutral, conditioned, and unconditioned stimuli, conditioned and unconditioned response, processes: Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery|
|Habituation and dishabituation (PSY): Associative learning (PSY)-classical conditioning (PSY, BIO): Processes-generalization, discrimination, operant conditioning (PSY, BIO): Processes of shaping and extinction, types of reinforcement: Positive, negative|
|Habituation and dishabituation (PSY): Operant conditioning (PSY, BIO)-types of reinforcement: Primary, conditional, reinforcement schedules: Fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval, punishment, escape and avoidance learning|
|Habituation and dishabituation (PSY): The role of cognitive processes in associative learning, biological processes that affect associative learning (e.g. biological predispositions, instinctive drift) (PSY, BIO)|
|Observational learning (PSY): Modeling, biological processes that affect observational learning, mirror neurons, role of the brain in experiencing vicarious emotions, applications of observational learning to explain individual behaviour|
|Theories of attitude and behaviour change (PSY): Elaboration likelihood model, social cognitive theory, factors that affect attitude change (e.g. changing behaviour, characteristics of the message and target, social factors)|
|Self-concept, self-identity, and social identity (PSY, SOC): The role of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control in self-concept and self-identity (PSY), different types of identities (e.g. race/ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, class)|
|Formation of identity (PSY, SOC): Theories of identity development (e.g. gender, moral, psychosexual, social), influence of social factors on identity formation: Influence of individuals (e.g. imitation, looking-glass self, role-taking)|
|Formation of identity (PSY, SOC): Influence of social factors on identity formation-influence of groups (e.g. reference group), influence of culture and socialization on identity formation|
Foundational concept-8-Social thinking
|Attributing behaviour to persons or situations (PSY): Attributional processes (e.g. fundamental attribution error, role of culture in attributions), how self-perceptions shape our perceptions of others|
|Attributing behaviour to persons or situations (PSY): How perceptions of the environment shape our perceptions of others|
|Prejudice and bias (PSY, SOC): Processes that contribute to prejudice-power, prestige, and class (SOC), the role of emotion in prejudice (PSY), the role of cognition in prejudice (PSY), stereotypes, stigma (SOC)|
|Prejudice and bias (PSY, SOC): Ethnocentrism (SOC)-ethnocentrism vs. cultural relativism|
|Processes related to stereotypes (PSY): Self-fulfilling prophecy, stereotype threat|
|Elements of social interaction (PSY, SOC): Status (SOC)-types of status (e.g. achieved, ascribed), role: Role conflict and role strain (SOC), role exit (SOC), groups: Primary and secondary groups (SOC), in-group vs. Out-group|
|Elements of social interaction (PSY, SOC): Groups-group size (e.g. dyads, triads) (SOC), networks (SOC), organizations (SOC): Formal organization, bureaucracy: Characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy|
|Elements of social interaction (PSY, SOC): Organizations (SOC)-bureaucracy: Perspectives on bureaucracy (e.g. iron law ofoligarchy, McDonaldization)|
|Self-presentation and interacting with others (PSY, SOC): Expressing and detecting emotion-the role of gender in the expression and detection of emotion, the role of culture in the expression and detection of emotion|
|Self-presentation and interacting with others (PSY, SOC): Presentation of self-impression management, front-stage vs. back-stage self (dramaturgical approach) (SOC), verbal and nonverbal communication, animal signals and communication (PSY, BIO)|
|Social behaviour (PSY): Attraction, aggression, attachment, altruism, social support (PSY, SOC), biological explanations of social behaviour in animals (PSY, BIO): Foraging behaviour (BIO), mating behaviour and mate choice, applying game theory (BIO)|
|Social behaviour (PSY): Biological explanations of social behaviour in animals (PSY, BIO)-altruism, inclusive fitness (BIO)|
|Discrimination (PSY, SOC): Individual vs. institutional discrimination (SOC), the relationship between prejudice and discrimination, how power, prestige, and class facilitate discrimination (SOC)|
Foundational concept-9-Understanding social structure
|Theoretical approaches (SOC): Microsociology vs. Macrosociology, functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, social constructionism, exchange-rational choice, Feminist theory|
|Social institutions (SOC): Education, hidden curriculum, teacher expectancy, educational segregation and stratification, family (PSY, SOC): Forms of kinship (SOC), diversity in family forms, marriage and divorce|
|Social institutions (SOC): Family (PSY, SOC)-Violence in the family (e.g. child abuse, elderabuse, spousal abuse) (SOC), religion: Religiosity, types of religious organizations (e.g. churches, sects, cults)|
|Social institutions (SOC): Religion-religion and social change (e.g. modernization, secularization, fundamentalism), government and economy: Power and authority, comparative economic and political systems, division of labour|
|Social institutions (SOC): Health and medicine-medicalization, the sick role, delivery of health care, illness experience, social epidemiology|
|Culture (PSY, SOC): Elements of culture (e.g. beliefs, language, rituals, symbols, values), material vs. symbolic culture (SOC), culture lag (SOC), culture shock (SOC), assimilation (SOC), multiculturalism (SOC), subcultures and countercultures (SOC)|
|Culture (PSY, SOC): Mass media and popular culture (SOC), evolution and human culture (PSY, BIO), transmission and diffusion (SOC)|
Foundational concept-9-Demographic characteristics and processes
|Demographic structure of society (PSY, SOC): Age-aging and the life course, age cohorts (SOC), social significance of aging, gender: Sex vs.gender, the social construction of gender (SOC), gender segregation (SOC)|
|Demographic structure of society (PSY, SOC): Race and ethnicity (SOC)-the social construction of race, racialization, racial formation, immigration status (SOC): Patterns of immigration, intersections with race and ethnicity, sexual orientation|
|Demographic shifts and social change (SOC): Theories of demographic change (e.g. Malthusian theory and demographic transition), population growth and decline (e.g. population projections, population pyramids)|
|Demographic shifts and social change (SOC): Fertility, migration, and mortality-fertility and mortality rates (e.g. total, crude, age-specific), patterns in fertility and mortality, push and pull factors in migration|
|Demographic shifts and social change (SOC): Social movements-relative deprivation, organization of social movements, movement strategies and tactics|
|Demographic shifts and social change (SOC): Globalization-factors contributing to globalization (e.g. communication technology, economic interdependence), perspectives on globalization, social changes in globalization (e.g. civil unrest, terrorism)|
|Demographic shifts and social change (SOC): Urbanization-industrialization and urban growth, suburbanization and urban decline, gentrification and urban renewal|
Foundational concept-10-Social inequality
|Spatial inequality (SOC): Residential segregation, neighborhood safety and violence, environmental justice (location and exposure to health risks)|
|Social class (SOC): Aspects of social stratification-social class and socioeconomic status, class consciousness and false consciousness, cultural capital and social capital, social reproduction, power, privilege, and prestige|
|Social class (SOC): Aspects of social stratification-intersectionality (e.g. race, gender, age), socioeconomic gradient in health, global inequalities, patterns of social mobility: Intergenerational and intragenerational mobility|
|Social class (SOC): Patterns of social mobility-vertical and horizontal mobility, meritocracy|
Scientific inquiry and reasoning skills
Knowledge of scientific concepts and principles
|Demonstrate understanding of scientific concepts and principles|
|Identify the relationships between closely-related concepts|
Scientific reasoning and problem solving
|Reason about scientific principles, theories, and models|
|Analyzing and evaluating scientific explanations and predictions|
Reasoning about the design and execution of research
|Demonstrate understanding of important components of scientific research|
|Reason about ethical issues in research|
Data-based and statistical reasoning
|Interpret patterns in data presented in tables, figures, and graphs|
|Reasoning about data and drawing conclusions from them|
Critical analysis and reasoning skills
|Humanities: Passages in the humanities are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to): Architecture, art, dance, ethics, literature, music, philosophy, popular culture, religion, theater, studies of diverse cultures|
|Social sciences: Social sciences passages are also drawn from a variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to): Anthropology, archaeology, economics, education, geography, history, linguistics, political science, population health|
|Social sciences: Social sciences passages are also drawn from a variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to): Psychology, sociology, studies of diverse cultures|
The MCAT 2023 exam has a duration of 6 hours and 15 minutes and an overall seated duration of 7 hours and 27 minutes which includes the breaks, optional sections as well as additional questions which are not a part of the actual scored exam.
The exam comprises 4 main sections which are:
- Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems
- Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems
- Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior
- Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills
MCAT 2023 Exam Pattern
|Section||Duration||Number of Questions|
|Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems||95 minutes||59|
|Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills||90 minutes||53|
|Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems||95 minutes||59|
|Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior||95 minutes||59|
Documents Required at Exam
- Valid government issued passport
The result for the MCAT 2023 exam will be available for the candidates online approximately 30-35 days after the test day. These results can be viewed and downloaded using a candidate's AAMC account.
MCAT 2023 Scores:
The MCAT 2023 result will have 5 different scores; 4 scores for the individual sections of the MCAT 2023 exam and one score which is an aggregate of all four sectional scores.
Each of the four MCAT sections is scored on a 118 to 132 point scale. The fifth and final score which is the aggregate of the four sectional scores is scored on a scale of 472 - 528.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question:Should international students take special permission to appear in the MCAT?
No, international students do not require any special permission to appear in the MCAT.
Question:What is the minimum educational qualification to appear in the MCAT?
Candidates should have an MBBS degree to appear in the MCAT.
Question:How is the score for MCAT given?
Each section in the MCAT is scored in the range of 118 to 132. The median score is 125. You will gat a score for each individual section and also an overall score.
Question:How soon will I receive my MCAT score?
You will receive your MCAT score 30 to 35 days after the date of your test.
Question:How many times can one appear for the MCAT?
In a single year you can take the MCAT for three times. In a two year consecutive period, you can take it for four years and in a lifetime you can take it for seven times.
Questions related to MCAT
Is there any MCAT exam center located in India?
No, there are no MCAT test centres located in India. Indian aspirants need to travel to any of the international testing countries to appear for the MCAT exam.
How many times can I appear in MCAT in a lifetime?
You can write the MCAT exam up to three times in one calendar year and four times across two calendar years. However a candidate cannot take the exam for more than seven times in their lifetime.
hiii, i m pursuing BPT from punjab,India m i eligibe for attempting MCAT exam...????????
Yes, you are eligible to give the Mcat exam. This exam can be given thrice in a calendar year. According to present statistics, MCAT exam centers 2022 are present across 18 countries, including US territories and Canada. While most countries have up to five test centers, the USA and Canada have listed more than 30 MCAT 2022 test centers each.
For further information click on the link given below:
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All the best.
Hello I am planning to do BSc Neurosciences (honors/research) which is a 4 year course as a bachelor degree further I am planning to be a doctor in the USA. please tell me if bsc neurosciences can make a way for me to be a doctor and what this courses future is.if yes,how am i eligible for MCAT?
Of course it can! Candidates interested in pursuing a BSc Neuroscience degree are exposed to extensive knowledge of neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neurophysiology. Neuroscience is a cutting-edge technology that has completely transformed the modern world. It has gained popularity as a result of the impact of technological evolution. Neuroscience is concerned with the activities of the brain and the study of human nervous systems. It makes use of cutting-edge technology.
Mentioned below are the admission process
- Each university has its own application process.
- Candidates must apply for an entrance exam at certain universities, and if they meet the criteria, they are eligible for admission.
- The entrance exam has a different syllabus for each university; candidates must score high enough in the entrance exam to be admitted to any BSc Neuroscience college.
- Candidates must download the admission form on time and fill it out with all of the necessary information and documentation.
- Candidates must stay on top of important date announcements.
- Once universities have released the merit list, candidates must check in on time and complete the necessary steps before the deadline in order to be admitted.
- Students should be aware of the deadlines when applying abroad.
- Prepare all of the documents on time.
- Prepare for entrance exams such as the TOEFL, IELTS, and others.
- Students must have their documents authenticated.
- Register for entrance exams online.
- Attend the exam on the scheduled date.
- Students must plan their visa appointments carefully.
Top universities to pursue B.Sc., Neuroscience are given below
1. Harvard University
2. University of Cambridge
3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
4. University of Oxford
5. Stanford University
Be prepared for anything. All the Best!!! You can do more.
how can i apply for mcat exam and i want full syllabus details,scolarship admission and full details i want
The MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) is an admission requirement in every medical schools in United States, Canada, Australia and Caribbean Islands. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) created it, and Pearson VUE administers it. MCAT is given 25 times a year in 21 countries.
Registration for the MCAT is open all year. Each MCAT attempt costs between $315 and 360, depending on the region. The MCAT tests a candidate's analytical, reasoning, psychological, and biological system knowledge.
- Candidates must apply to medical schools and include their application information in a verification statement during registration.
- To take a test for purposes other than attending medical school, special permission from the AAMC is required.
- Candidates can take a maximum of three tests in one year, four tests in two years, and seven tests in their lifetime. Exam Pattern for MCAT
- The online test has four sections that must be completed in 7.5 hours.
- The overall MCAT score ranges from 472 to 528.
- The MCAT evaluates students' problem-solving abilities, critical thinking, written analysis, and understanding of scientific concepts and principles.
- The computer-based exam includes 221 multiple-choice questions.
- The exam lasts 7.5 hours, with breaks in between.
- Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems, Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills, Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems, and Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior are the four sections.
To know more about MCAT exam take a look at the below link.
All the Best!!! You still have a long way to go.